Pranjali et al prepared a mesoporous magnetic nanohybrid functionalized with 14 wt% carbon nitride (CN) and loaded with curcumin (Cur) for combination platform for photodynamic therapy and magnetic hyperthermia. CN-Cur complexes on the nanoparticle surface facilitate fast charge separation of hole-electrons under blue LED light irradiation and subsequent singlet oxygen generation. Cur release from the nanoparticle was significant only when exposed to both lysosomal pH (pH=5.2) and an alternating current magnetic field (AMF). The mesoporous magnetic carbon nitride (MMCN) caused a 350% increase in the level of intracellular ROS as compared to the light-exposed untreated control group. The nanohybrid was non-hemolytic and found to be biocompatible with HUVEC cells at concentrations up to 360 µg/mL. A similar concentration under AMF exposure caused a localized temperature rise of 4.2 °C and resulted in a60% reduction in C6 cell viability. The cancer cell death further increased up to 80% under sequential exposure to light and AMF. The combinatorial treatment exerted significant cytoskeletal and nuclear damage in the cancer cells as assessed by confocal microscopy. The nanohybrid also exhibited relaxivity of 88 mM-1 s-1, imparting significant T2weighted contrast to the cancer cells.
More info: Pranjali Yadav, Cheng Zhang, Andrew K. Whittaker, Kamalakannan Kailasam and Asifkhan Shanavas, Magnetic and Photocatalytic Curcumin Bound Carbon Nitride Nanohybrids for Enhanced Glioma Cell Death, ACS Biomater. Sci. Eng. 2019 (https://doi.org/10.1021/acsbiomaterials.9b01224).
Graphitic carbon nitride (also known as g-CN or g-C3N4) has the intrinsic ability to generate electron–hole pairs under visible light illumination, resulting in the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). We report g-CN quantum dots (g-CNQDs) as a standalone photodynamic transducer for imparting significant oxidative stress in glioma cells, manifested by the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential. With an optimized treatment time, visible light source, and exposure window, the photodynamic treatment with g-CNQDs could achieve ∼90% cancer cell death via apoptosis. The g-CNQDs, otherwise biocompatible with normal cells up to 5 mg/mL, showed ∼20% necrotic cancer cell death in the absence of light due to membrane damage induced by a charge shielding effect at the acidic pH prevailing in the tumor environment. Acute toxicity analysis in C57BL/6 mice with intravenously injected g-CNQDs at a 20 mg/kg dose showed no signs of inflammatory response or organ damage.
Pranjali Yadav, Mimansa, Kamalakannan Kailasam*, Asifkhan Shanavas*, ACS Applied Bio Materials, 2022 (https://doi.org/10.1021/acsabm.1c01219)
Disintegrable inorganic nanoclusters (GIONs) with gold seed (GS) coating of an iron oxide core with a primary nanoparticle size less than 6 nm were prepared for theranostic applications. The GIONs possessed a broad near-infrared (NIR) absorbance at ∼750 nm because of plasmon coupling between closely positioned GSs on the iron oxide nanoclusters (ION) surface, in addition to the ∼513 nm peak corresponding to the isolated GS. The NIR laser-triggered photothermal response of GIONs was found to be concentration-dependent with a temperature rise of ∼8.5 and ∼4.5 °C from physiological temperature for 0.5 and 0.25 mg/mL, respectively. The nanoclusters were nonhemolytic and showed compatibility with human umbilical vein endothelial cells up to a concentration of 0.7 mg/mL under physiological conditions. The nanoclusters completely disintegrated at a lysosomal pH of 5.2 within 1 month. With an acute increase of over 400% intracellular reactive oxygen species soon after γ-irradiation and assistance from Fenton reaction-mediated supplemental oxidative stress, GION treatment in conjunction with radiation killed ∼50% of PLC/PRF/5 hepatoma cells. Confocal microscopy images of these cells showed significant cytoskeletal and nuclear damage from radiosensitization with GIONs. The cell viability further decreased to ∼10% when they were sequentially exposed to the NIR laser followed by γ-irradiation. The magnetic and optical properties of the nanoclusters enabled GIONs to possess a T2 relaxivity of ∼223 mM–1 s–1and a concentration-dependent strong photoacoustic signal toward magnetic resonance and optical imaging. GIONs did not incur any organ damage or evoke an acute inflammatory response in healthy C57BL/6 mice. Elemental analysis of various organs indicated differential clearance of gold and iron via both renal and hepatobiliary routes.
More info: Pranjali Yadav, Mimansa, Rafika Munawara, Kanchan Kapoor, Shubhra Chaturvedi, Kamalakannan Kailasam, Samir Kumar Biswas, Dhirendra Bahadur, Rohit Srivastava, Anil Kumar Mishra, Asifkhan Shanavas*, ACS Biomaterials Science & Engineering, 2022 (https://doi.org/10.1021/acsbiomaterials.1c01579).
Advanced Functional Nanomaterials for Energy and Environmental Applications like water splitting, CO2 conversion, gas storage, fine chemicals production, photovoltaics, fuel cells and batteries.
My approach mostly depends on creating porosity in functional organic and inorganic materials by soft and hard templating approaches and their extensive characterization. In addition building the organic porous network by reacting special tectons and avoiding their packing in such a way that it opens up the porosity, for eg., in Covalent Organic Frameworks (COFs). As the further step, to fulfil like every scientists dream, of extending the research results to develop technology by prototype devices and towards industrial applications:
♦ Conversion of water resources to fuels by solar energy: Porous heptazine and triazine based polymeric carbon nitride and mesoporous WO3 and BiVO4 semiconductors for photocatalytic and photoelectrochemical visible light water splitting and organic conversions.
♦ Storage of H2, CO2 and CH4; capturing and conversion of green house gases (GHGs) like CO2: Covalent Organic Frameworks (CTFs, Covalent Triazine Frameworks), Mesoporous melamine resins and Polymeric carbon nitrides
♦ Conversion of Biomass and CH4 to value-added fuels: Porous mixed metal oxide and metal nanoparticle supported SBA-15, MCM-41 and mesoporous zeolites. Hydrothermal Carbonization (HTC) of the biomass into functionalised carbon materials.
♦ Electrochemical applications: Porous hetero atom doped carbons from renewables, graphene/CNT carbon nitride composites, CTFs, mesoporous metal oxides for Fuel cells, Batteries and Supercapacitors
♦ Chromatographic applications: Various morphological forms, like M-MCM-41 (e.g., M = Ti) silica spheres grafted with functional chains for on-column catalysis and separation using HPLC/GC techniques
♦ Environmental Remediation-water purification: Carbon nitride polymers – removal of toxic/heavy elements from polluted water, photocatalytic adsorption/degradation of dyes and other organic pollutants from industrial wastes
♦ Biotechnology applications: Porous carbon nitrides as Fluorescence nanoprobe in biosensing and bioimaging applications. Multi-functionalized ordered porous spherical silicas as drug-delivery systems.
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Biomass-derived cellulose nanofibers and iron oxide-based nanohybrids for thermal insulation application: Sourav Sen, Ajit Singh, Kamalakannan Kailasam, Chandan Bera and Sangita Roy, (2022) Nanoscale Advances, 4: 3381-3390. DOI: 10.1039/D2NA00010E
Biodegradable Protein-Stabilized Inorganic Nanoassemblies for Photothermal Radiotherapy of Hepatoma Cells: Pranjali Yadav , Shubhra Chaturvedi, Samir Kumar Biswas, Rohit Srivastava, Kamalakannan Kailasam, Anil Kumar Mishra, and Asifkhan Shanavas, (2022) ACS Omega, . DOI: 10.1021/acsomega.1c07324
Nontoxic Metal-Free Visible Light-Responsive Carbon Nitride Quantum Dots Cause Oxidative Stress and Cancer-Specific Membrane Damage: Pranjali Yadav , Mimansa, Kamalakannan Kailasam, and Asifkhan Shanavas, (2022) ACS Applied Bio Materials, . DOI: 10.1021/acsabm.1c01219
Oxygen deficient WO3-x Nanorods and g-CN Nanosheets heterojunctions: a 1D-2D interface with engineered band structure for cyclohexanol oxidation in visible light: A. Jaryal, V. R. Battula,K. Kailasam, (2020) ACS Applied Energy Materials, . DOI: doi.org/10.1021/acsaem.0c00302
S,N-GQD Enzyme Mimicked Electrochemical Sensor to Detect the Hazardous level of Monocrotophos in water: A. Jayalatha, N. Sharma, N. Nesakumar, K. Kailasam and J. B. B. Rayappan, (2019) Electroanalysis, 32: 1-8. DOI: 10.1002/elan.201900447
Synergistic Effect of Noble Metal free Ni(OH)2 co-catalyst and Ternary ZnIn2S4/g-C3N4 Heterojunction for Enhanced Visible Light Photocatalytic Hydrogen Evolution: L. R. Nagappagari, S. Samanta, N. Sharma,V. R. Battula,K. Kailasam, (2019) Sustainable Energy & Fuels, 4: 750-759. DOI: 10.1039/C9SE00704K
Metal-free visible light photocatalytic carbon nitride quantum dots as efficient antibacterial agents: An insight study: P Yadav, N S Thangaraj, B Purohit, A Shanavas, K Kailasam, (2019) Carbon, 152: 587. DOI: 10.1016/j.carbon.2019.06.045
A Low Temperature, Highly Sensitive and Fast Response Toluene Gas Sensor Based on In(III)-SnO2 Loaded Cubic Mesoporous Graphitic Carbon Nitride: R. Malik, V. K. Tomer*, V. Chaudhary, M. S. Dahiya, S. P. Nehra, S. Duhan, (2018) Sens. Actuators B, 255: 3564-3575. DOI: 10.1016/j.snb.2017.09.193
Hydrogen-bond mediated columnar liquid crystalline assemblies of C3-symmetric heptazine derivatives at ambient temperature: Bhumica Agarwal,R. S. Sangwan ,S. Elumalai., (2018) Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 82: 2408–2425. DOI: 10.1039/C8SM00834E
Natural sunlight driven oxidative homocoupling of amines by truxene based conjugated microporous polymer: V. R. Battula, H. Singh, S. Kumar, I. Bala, S. K. Pal, (2018) ACS Catalysis, 8: 6751-6759. DOI: 10.1021/acscatal.8b00623
Hydrogen-bond mediated columnar liquid crystalline assemblies of C3-symmetric heptazine derivatives at ambient temperature: I. Bala, S. P. Gupta, S. Kumar, H. Singh, J. De, N. Sharma,S. K. Pal, (2018) Soft Matter, . DOI: 10.1039/c8sm00834e
Deep-Blue OLED Fabrication from Heptazine Columnar Liquid Crystal Based AIE-Active Sky Blue Emitter: I. Bala, L. Ming, R. A. K. Yadav, J. De, D. K. Dubey, S. Kumar, H. Singh, J. –H. Jou,S. K. Pal., (2018) ChemistrySelect, 3: 7771–7777. DOI: 10.1002/slct.201801715
A Low Temperature, Highly Sensitive and Fast Response Toluene Gas Sensor Based on In(III)-SnO2 Loaded Cubic Mesoporous Graphitic Carbon Nitride: R. Malik, V. K. Tomer*, V. Chaudhary, M. S. Dahiya, S. P. Nehra, S. Duhan, (2017) Sens. Actuators B: Chem, . DOI: 10.1016/j.snb.2017.09.193
Heptazine: A new electron deficient fluorescent core for discotic liquid crystals: I. Bala, H. Singh, V. R. Battula, S. P. Gupta, J. De, S. Kumar,S. K. Pal, (2017) Chem. Eur. J., . DOI: 10.1002/chem.201703364
Traversing the History of Solid Catalysts for Heterogeneous Synthesis of 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural from Carbohydrate Sugars: A Review: Bhumica Agarwalᶲ, R. S. Sangwan,S. Elumalai., (2017) Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, . DOI: 10.1016/j.rser.2017.08.088
Near Room Temperature Ethanol detection using Ag-loaded Mesoporous Carbon NitridesACS Omega: V. K. Tomer, R. Malik, (2017) ACS Omega, 2 (7): 3658–3668. DOI: 10.1021/acsomega.7b00479
Excellent Humidity Sensor based on In-SnO2 Loaded Mesoporous Graphitic Carbon Nitride: R. Malik, V. K. Tomer*, V. Chaudhary, M. S. Dahiya, S. P. Nehra, S. Duhan, (2017) J. Mater. Chem. A, 5: 14134-14143. DOI: 10.1039/C7TA02860A
Truxene based Porous, Crystalline Covalent Organic Frameworks and it’s Applications in Humidity Sensing: Harpreet Singh, Vijay K. Tomer, Nityasagar Jena, Indu Bala, Nidhi Sharma, Devadutta Nepak, Santanu Pal*, (2017) Journal of Materials Chemistry A, 5: 21820-21827. DOI: 10.1039/C7TA05043G
Silica material variation for MnxOy-Na2WO4/SiO2: M. Yildiz, Y. Aksu, U. Simon, T. Otremba, C. Göbel, F. Girgsdies, O. Görke, F. Rosowski, A. Thomas, R. Schomäcker,S. Arndt., (2016) Appl. Catal. A, 525: 168-179. DOI: 10.1016/j.apcata.2016.06.034
Cubic mesoporous Ag@CN: A high performance humidity sensorr: V. K. Tomer, S.T. Nishanthi, S. Gahlot, (2016) Nanoscale, 8: 19794-19803. DOI: 10.1039/C6NR08039A
Donor-Acceptor Type Heptazine-Based Polymer Networks for Photocatalytic Hydrogen Evolution: M. B. Mesch, L. Möhlmann, M. Baar, S. Blechert, M. Schwarze, M. Schröder, R. Schomäcker, J. Senker and A. Thomas, (2016) Energy Technology, 4: 744-750. DOI: 10.1002/ente.201500478
Merging Atom Disperse Silver and Carbon Nitride to a Joint Electronic System via Co-Polymerization with Silver Tricyanomethanide: Z. Chen, S. Pronkin, T. Fellinger, G. Vilé, D. Albani, J. Pérez-Ramírez, M. Antonietti and D. Dontsova, (2016) ACS Nano, 10: 3166–3175. DOI: 10.1021/acsnano.5b04210
Chapter-3: Carbon Nitrides (g-C3N4) and Covalent Triazine Frameworks (CTFs): Pages 67-102, 2018” in Metal-free Functionalized Carbons in Catalysis: Synthesis, Characterization and Applications, Editors: Alberto Villa and Nikolaos Dimitratos, Royal Society of Chemistry. Devadutta Nepak, Vijay K. Tomer, (2018) .
Chapter-15: Visible‐Light Heterogeneous Catalysts for Photocatalytic CO2 Reduction, Pages 421-446,: in Visible Light‐Active Photocatalysis: Nanostructured Catalyst Design, Mechanisms, and Applications, Editor: Srabanti Ghosh, Wiley‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. Sanyasinaidu Boddu, ST Nishanthi, (2018) .
Chapter-12: Metal‐Free Organic Semiconductors for Visible‐Light‐Active Photocatalytic Water Splitting: in Visible Light‐Active Photocatalysis: Nanostructured Catalyst Design, Mechanisms, and Applications, Wiley‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. ST Nishanthi, Battula Venugopala Rao, (2018) 329-363.
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Department of Chemistry, University of Stuttgart, Stuttgart, Germany
Department of Chemistry, Bishop Heber College, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli, Tamil Nadu
Associate Professor (Scientist-E):Institute of Nano Science & Technology, Mohali, India (April 2015 to Present till date )
Postdoctoral Research Fellow:Technical University of Berlin, Berlin, Germany (February 2010 to April 2015 )
Postdoctoral Research Fellow:Max Planck Institute of Colloids and Interfaces, Potsdam-Golm, Germany (February 2009 to January 2010 )
Max Planck Fellowship for Postdoctoral Research, Max Planck Institute for Colloids and Interfaces-Potsdam, Germany – 2009
DFG (German Research Council) Doctoral Fellowship, University of Stuttgart, 2004
IGCAR-DAE Junior Research Fellow (JRF), IGCAR-Kalpakkam, Tamil Nadu - 2004
Best Outgoing Post-Graduate Student in Chemistry, Bishop Heber College, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli, Tamil Nadu – 2002
Reviewer for Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC) and Elsevier journals
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